Sunday, January 19, 2020

The Jealous and Selfish Characters of Shakespeares Othello :: GCSE English Literature Coursework

The Jealous and Selfish Characters of Othello  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the play Othello, there are many jealous and selfish characters. Each of the characters at one point or another let their jealousy take over. It seems like they all have these plots and plans on how to hurt another character in the play either physically or emotionally, as an act of selfishness, so that they can feel better about themselves. One main character who seems extremely jealous in this play is Iago. Infact, probably the most jealous. Many bad things happen because of Iago. The first bad thing that Iago did, was tell Barbantio (Desdamona's father) that Desdemona has married Othello, the Moore. Iago was mad at Othello, because Cassio had made Othello a higher position and not Iago. Iago thought that he was the one who qualified for the position as general, not Othello. Iago was jealous because of this, so he decided to tell Barbantio about Desdemona and Othello. This was bad, because Barbantio did not know yet, and something like that should have been said by his own daugh ter, not someone who was not part of the family. The way Iago went about telling him was also bad. He called to his house in the middle of the night. He yelled it to Barbantio from downstairs into his window in a rude manner. " quote from Othello here." He wanted Barbantio to be upset about what had happened, and most of all, he wanted Barbantio to be mad at Othello and do something bad to him. This was an act of selfishness on Iago's side. Iago's main reason for doing all this, was not to inform Barbantio, but to make everyone dislike Othello so that he could become general. Roderigo also helped out with telling Barbantio about Othello and Desdamona's eloping. The reason Roderigo did this, was not to let Barbantio know for his purposes, but merely for his own selfish reasons. Just as Iago did. Roderigo was in love with Desdemona and wanted to marry her. When he found out that Othello had already married her, he wanted to get rid of him so that he would still have a chance with her. I think that Roderigo may have known that he did not have a chance with Desdemona and that she really did love Othello, and that made him very jealous. He did not like Othello because of this, and that's why he wanted to destroy his reputation.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Be Happier by Consuming Less

Andres Martinez Garcia Section 1010 03/18/13 Prof. Cheryl L. Flanigan Essay 2 Be Happier by Consuming Less Consumerist is a social and economic order that encourages the purchase of goods and services in ever greater amounts. In the American consumption, people do not know how much is enough, do we really need all we buy? Or we just buy it because everyone else has it? Does it make us any happier? In the article â€Å"The New Politics of Consumption: Why Americans Want So Much More That They Need† Juliet Schor shares with us her point of view about American Consumption.In Schor’s article says, â€Å"The average American now finds it harder to achieve a satisfying standard of living than 25 years ago† (411). Also that â€Å"The competitive consumption, the idea that spending is in large part driven by a comparative or competitive process in which individuals try to keep up with the norms of the social group with which they identify as a reference group† (41 2). Finally she believes that â€Å"Low income children are more likely to be exposed to commercials at school, as well as home† (413). Our personal consumer choices have ecological, social, and spiritual consequences.Much of what we purchase is not essential for our survival or even basic human comfort but is based on impulse, a momentary desire, and there is a hidden price that we, and future generations will pay for it too. The American economy’s ultimate purpose is to produce more consumer goods, not better health care, education, housing, transportation, but to provide more stuff to consumers. First, in Schor’s article she says, â€Å"The average American now finds it harder to achieve a satisfying standard of living than 25 years ago† (411).Nowadays people have to work longer hours than 25 year ago, to be able to pay all their desires. Having more and newer things each year has become not just something we want but something we need. The idea of mor e, ever increasing wealth has become the center of our identity, and this looks like an addiction. For example, my aunt Maria works 5 days a week to be able to pay all her bills and sometimes does overtime. She might have a lot of new and cool things, but she doesn’t even have time to enjoy all these things because she has to be working just to pay all she has.My aunt has a salary of $9. 25 per hour and getting a check of $740 biweekly which she have to use to pay her car $200, plus her phone $85, personal stuff $150, and the list keep going. I have worked 40 hours a week, going to classes full-time with little satisfaction. Without working that long, I am less stressed, and I prefer to learn how to spend less money, than spending more, and live stressed all the time. People should take more responsibility for themselves and their families and think outside of the box when it comes to life.Working less hours and buying fewer products is a good way to start. Also, Schor says, â€Å"The competitive consumption, the idea that spending is in large part driven by a comparative or competitive process in which individuals try to keep up with the norms of the social group with which they identify as a reference group† (412). People try to be in the same level that everyone else; if they see that somebody bought something, they will try to have that, just because that person has it. An example is the iPhones people are obsessed with them.The first iPhone was the 3G, then 3GS, 4, 4S, and the 5 that is the last one that just came out. All of these iPhones do almost the same functions; they just changed the size, and some other little things. People spend a lot of money buying the iPhones; the prices are between $300 and $500. The point is that people want to keep up with the newest things, just because other people will have it. For example, my cousin Heysus who is 23 years old, have been buying all the iPhones, because all his friends have them, and whenev er came a new iPhone, he ordered it immediately to keep up with what his friends have.Another point is that people with less income, tend to watch more TV, in Schor’s article says, â€Å"Low income children are more likely to be exposed to commercials at school, as well as home† (413). Television and marketing are a big influence of how people spend their money. We watched an example of it in the movie of Super-Size Me, of how the companies spend a lot of their money on marketing, because they know that people is going to buy their products. We need to make people conscious about the problem that we all have as a society.Without our consumer impulse to buy the newest, coolest things on the market, there would be no market. People should think more about what they buy, and should not do unnecessary purchases I think that some people keep worrying more about what they can buy, and how they can have better and newest things instead of be worrying about how they can live h appier, and less stressed. An individual does not necessarily have to live as a rich person to be happy. The thought of shorter hours working is a wealth of opportunity and adventure that no Disneyland or Las Vegas vacation can offer.It is actually stress-free and can help us to have time to more valuable parts of our life, like having more time to spend with our family and friends. Finally, as a student that works and studies at the same time, I have to be a smart consumer. I ask myself what I need and what I really don’t. Why do I need a car? Is it necessary to have a laptop when we have a library full of computers? We all need to learn that how to spend our money in a better way, and know that we do not need to have the newest and coolest things that the market offer us to be happy.As we saw in the article â€Å"The New Politics of Consumption: Why Americans Want So More That They Need† Juliet Schor shares with us her point of view about American Consumption. In Sch or’s article says â€Å"The average American now finds it harder to achieve a satisfying standard of living than 25 years ago† (411). Also that â€Å"The competitive consumption, the idea that spending is in large part driven by a comparative or competitive process in which individuals try to keep up with the norms of the social group with which they identify as a reference group† (412).Finally she believes that â€Å"Low income children are more likely to be exposed to commercials at school, as well as home† (413). We need to learn that how to be a smart consumer, and do not spend more of what we can afford. Works Cited Schor, Juliet. â€Å"The New Politics of Consumptions: Why Americans Want So Much More Than They Need. † Searching For Causes. New York: Harper. 1999. 410-414. Print. â€Å"Consumption. † Wikipedia. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. Super Size Me. Dir. Morgan Spurlock. Perf. Morgan Spurlcok , Daryl Isaacs. 2004. DVD.

Friday, January 3, 2020

The Stereotypes Of The Video - 864 Words

A. Stereotype / pg. 110: Assumptions of what people are like, whether true or false. Stereotypes have been around longer than America has. In this century every type of person has a stereotype. Some positive and some negative. The stereotype to highlight pertaining to the video is about the Latinos. Most Latinos are assumed illegal immigrants because a lot of them don’t speak English and if they do it is not very well. Another factor to add in is that a lot of Latinos work landscaping under the table. That is across America, now to talk about the areas around the boarders of America. Every day thousands of Latinos try to cross the border illegally. So the stereotype may have more truth down there but it is still not completely true. The fact is every darker skin colored person will be pulled over near the borders either by the county police or the border patrol. B. Role Performance / pg. 111: The ways in which someone performs a role; showing a particular â€Å"style† or â€Å"personality†. The role of an illegal immigrant is simple. The reason why is because of their style. Illegal immigrants will hike to certain points on their side of the border and strip completely naked. Then they put everything into a garbage bag. After this they blow air into the bag then tie the bag with one shoe’s lace. The other lace will then be tied around the person and then the bag. This way their clothes will not float downstream and leave them naked and broke. If they do notShow MoreRelatedCultural Adoption : Looking Through A New Lens1425 Words   |  6 Pagesthese things. In a world of highly-technologized media, social apparatuses, and widespread ideas, one would think that the prospect of cultural misunderstandings would be nil in their effects toward modern society, however, somehow these plaguing stereotypes, generalizations, and inaccurate prototypes make it through the filter of a highly educated world. Therein lies the problem-the world is not as educated as many might p erceive. Thousands of developing nations power ahead to industrialization andRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Gangnam Style A K Pop Single By Korean Musician Psy884 Words   |  4 Pagesthe world. The popularity of this song and dance went viral, however, there is an prominent issue with the stereotype of asian males. Gangnam style is a a great example and representation on the emphasis of how established stereotypes of Asian males remain and continue in the media, particularly in Western media. In a personal opinion, Gangnam Style is such a success due to its Asian stereotype that is depicted as being fascinating and almost comical. The song has little English words and many peopleRead MoreEssay on Fresh Prince of Bel-Air1267 Words   |  6 Pageschair with the graffiti background. The effect of the lyrics and the music video to this intro song goes way beyond pure entertainment value. The music video and lyrics spread happiness, smiles, and even helped to usher in a new generati on of kids with the carefree fresh prince mindset. The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air was a show that comes around once every generation. This show broke through all racial barriers and stereotypes and introduced pure comedy and valued life lessons through a televisionsRead MoreMinimum Of 10 Indications Of Prejudice : The Most Hated Homophobic Family In America1237 Words   |  5 Pagesminimum of 10 indications of prejudice. The Most Hated Homophobic family in america In the video with the westboro baptist family church they hate all gays and homosexuals. (1.)(2.)(3.)Their picket signs showed a man lean over and another man behind him indicating what she called homosexual act that all gays are doing is just her own prejudices and beliefs that homosexual is nasty it is her own idea. Stereotype two all those in the act of sexualness not between one man and one woman are condemned andRead MoreThe Video Game Industry and the Objectification and Stereotyping of Women 1322 Words   |  5 Pagesand misgender women? Video games have been used as a platform for entertainment between the ages of 18 and 49. The entertainment factor of video games comes from the various forms of art, cultures, worlds, languages, and stories that come from each individual game. 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Bigsby bluntly characterizesRead MoreThe Negative Effect Of Stereotypes1613 Words   |  7 PagesThe Negative Effect of Stereotypes in Comedy We all laugh at the things we see in the media that are perceived as funny; whether it be appropriate or offensive. One of the most popular subjects that comedians and comedy shows rely on is stereotypes. Stereotypes play a large role in society and the everyday lives of individuals. These stereotypes have resulted in blurred assumptions of others based on what we see and hear in the media. The use of stereotypes in comedy to make something funny has aRead MoreMedia Influence On Women s Body Image1688 Words   |  7 PagesThis media exposure through outlets such as t.v., radio, music videos, movies, and the internet, all influence the way people think about gender. The media influence is very evident in the way people view women and think about women in different cultures. Media influence on women creates negative viewpoints with how women view themselves and even how men view themselves, in turn making it hard to break certain beliefs and stereotypes instilled on society. There are many different products developedRead MoreThe s Video For Bad Girls1496 Words   |  6 PagesWith souped-up cars, gold clad attire and reckless behavior, M.I.A’s video for Bad Girls is the definition of â€Å"life in the fast lane†. M.I.A, an alternative hip-hop artist, stays true to her roots in Bad Girls, beginning the video with bass beats that are characteristic of the hip-hop genre―immediately making you feel the music and want to dance along. All the while, she still captures the essence of the video by mixing traditional hip-hop rhythms with a Mediterranean flair, giving the song an overallRead MoreSexism in the Minds of the Youth Essay917 Words   |  4 Pagestheir early beginnings the video game industry has given distorted images of people both physically and psychologically. Both men and women have been heavily impacted by their ridiculous body images of both men and women. The impact that video games are having on its users starts as you ng as 10 when most kids start to play video games. This number has declined about 7 years( Luke Plunnet Kotaku) Although they seem meaningless and just part of the story, components of video games can actually have a

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Negative Effects Of Industrialization - 711 Words

Although Industrialization appears to be beneficial for humanity as far as technology and businesses are considered, nevertheless, I believe that Industrialization has increased poverty and made the world lazy. Therefore, I believe that Industrialization has done more harm than good for humanity. Around 3200 B.C.E., as the First Civilizations took shape, inequality and hierarchy soon came to be regarded as normal and natural (Strayer 71). Much like today, the upper classes enjoyed great wealth in land or salaries and had the finest of clothing and housing. Even though there were hierarchies of class in the First Civilizations there appeared to be no drastic shortage of jobs or an abundance of people living in poverty within the†¦show more content†¦Furthermore, because of the overpopulation in these towns, jobs were never guaranteed to the people, nor were they beneficial to their wealth. On account of the overpopulation in these locations, the unending excess of workers bas ically had to beg for a job, no matter what or how dangerous the task might be, just to try to make ends meet. Due to their desperation, industries decided to keep their wages excessively low, even though they could afford it. Much like industries today, the mentality of the owner is, â€Å"more money for you, is less for me, so why should I pay you more?†. That being said, I believe that the world we live in is based upon Industrialization, whether I like it or not. Mahatma Gandhi once said, â€Å"Industrialization is, I am afraid, going to be a curse for mankind†¦ Industrialization on a mass scale will necessarily lead to passive or active exploitation of the villagers†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Strayer 827). Despite how beneficial and altogether wonderful Industrialization has made the world today, nonetheless I would have to agree with Gandhi. I believe that Industrialization has made the world lazy. Too many times out of a day we, myself included, rely on technology or machines to make our everyday tasks easier. Before Industrialization people had jobs and civilizations had hierarchies of class implemented, without poverty playing a major role in their lifestyles. Furthermore, IShow MoreRelatedNegative Effects Of Industrialization701 Words   |  3 Pagesfacing today.   The broad term, industrialization, refers to the development of goods produced by machinery and the discovery of new energy resources.   Industrialization had many positive an d negative effects on the citizens of the world during these two centuries.   The events under industrialization could be said to have fallen victim to the â€Å"snowball effect† and been a cause of the situation that our world is facing today.   Ã‚  Ã‚   Some of the positive effects of Industrialization seen near the end of theRead MoreNegative Effects Of Industrialization1203 Words   |  5 PagesIndustrialization was a time period where the United States experienced prosperity and many advancements in technology. Nevertheless, while many beneficial events came from this time period, there were also numerous negative outcomes. This can be seen three decades after The Civil War, where the idea that anyone could rise upwards in society with the use of hard work, thriftiness, and a bit of luck, became widespread among American citizens. However, this idea was only proven correct in individualRead MoreNegative Effects Of Industrialization On Factory Workers2171 Words   |  9 PagesNegative Effects of Industrialization on Factory Workers Over the past decade the industry of production has evolved from the simple process of the creation of goods to an elaborate method of fabrication and distribution. Many changes in how things can be made have revolutionized the way the manufacturing industry meets it goals.This transition into an efficient system of manufacturing benefited many such as the consumer but at the expense of the worker making these goods and products. Bruce RockowitzRead MoreIndustrialization After the Civil War694 Words   |  3 PagesIndustrialization after the Civil War influenced U.S society, economy, and politics in many ways. Industrialization after the Civil War made the way of living more convenient for people but it was a time were the government was corrupted. One major aspect of industrialization was the railroads and steel. According to how stuff works â€Å"railroads were used to transport food and goods, and they also shaped the growth of some cities and brought economic prosperity to some. Railroads were also usedRead MoreThe Stages of Industrialization1041 Words   |  4 PagesIndustrialization refers to a stage of social and economic transformation that alters a group or society from an agrarian one into an industrial society (Sullivan Sheffrin, 2003). Industrialization is associated with progress in the production of metallurgy and energy opening up the economy for manufacturing. It occurs as a broad process of modernizing in a society such that economic change and social change become strongly related to the technological innovations. It also brings with it a kindRead MoreIndustrial Revolution Essay example1295 Words   |  6 Pagesagriculture, manufacturing and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultur al conditions of the world. The Industrial Revolution began in the United Kingdom as large deposits of coal and iron were found throughout the land which brought the rise of factories and machines, the idea then subsequently spread throughout the world. It was perhaps one of the greatest moments in human history, as it gave rise to industrialization and the switch from manpower to machine power. It completelyRead MoreThe Industrialization of the Northern United States Essays1504 Words   |  7 Pages once said that the industrialization of the United States north produced a â€Å"complete revolution† in Americans’ â€Å"life and manners.† The complete revolution that Bushnell speaks of was an era of industrialization triggered by a population growth, an increase in literacy rates, and the development of labor-saving technologies in the northern region of the United States. This dramatic economic and social transformation instigated a series of outcomes, both p ositive and negative, for the United StatesRead MoreImpact of Industrialization on Environment1103 Words   |  5 PagesImpact of Industrialization on Environment OVERVIEW Centuries ago, when there was no active expanding of large cities and industries, nature was able to overcome pollution and keep air fairly clean without outside help. The wind and rain in the form of natural rescuers scattered gases and washed away the dust. However, with increasing industrialization and urbanization, the nature’s system cannot cope with pollution and clean the environment naturally. In comparison with volcanoes, hurricanes,Read MoreSecond Industrial Revolution1000 Words   |  4 Pagesdescription of two developments of industrialization that positively affected the United States and two developments that negatively affected the United States will be discussed. An analysis of whether or not industrialization was generally beneficial or detrimental to the lives of Americans and the history of the United States will be outlined. Second US Industrial Revolution, 1870 -1910 In this brief paper, a description of two developments of industrialization that positively affected AmericanRead MoreIndustrialization : The Transformation Period From An Agricultural Economy1157 Words   |  5 PagesIndustrialization: the transformation period from an agricultural economy to a mass-producing one. This is an essential step towards avoiding poverty that is established in less-developed states by transitioning from an agrarian to an industrial society. Two broad aspects of industrializing are a change in labor activity, such as farming to manufacturing, and how productive economic output occurs. Within this process, new industries are allowed to develop and the quality of life is improved due to

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Family Diversity - 2087 Words

a) Explain what is meant by the neo-conventional family (2 marks) Chester describes the neo-conventional family as a dual-earner family, in which both souses go to work. It is similar to Young and Willmotts idea of the symmetrical family. b) Explain the difference between expressive and instrumental roles. (4 marks) Expressive - homemaker, usually the females role as it is more caring and nurturing and stating that they should stay at home and be a housewife and not go to work. Instrumental – breadwinner, usually the males role as it is more physical and states that men should go to work and earn money for their family in order to provide for them. c) Identify three of the types of family diversity described by†¦show more content†¦The New Right oppose most of the changes in family patterns such as working mothers because they believe women should stay at home and be the home-makers and carry out their expressive roles, the more caring and nurturing role, also mentioned in item A. They also see lone-parent families as harmful, especially to children and argue that lone mothers are unable to discipline their children adequately and fail to give a prime example of a male role model which is why boys nowadays misbehave and result in higher rates of delinquency and threatening social stability. Amato would argue that children in a nuclear family are less likely to experience poverty, education failure, committing crimes, and health problems. Charles Murray of the New Right perspective, associated children born out of wedlock or ‘illegitimates’ with the ‘underclass’. He suggested the fathers of the ses ‘illegitimates’ were ‘unskilled young men, who were unwilling to take up uninspiring work’. He believed the mothers of these ‘illegitimates’ ‘would be better off on benefits’ than marrying these ‘unskilled young men’. However, critics argue that no evidence is given to support the idea that the children of lone-parents families are more delinquent As conservatives, they are strongly opposed to high levels of taxation and government spending and are therefore against lone-parent families as it causes an increase of the spendingShow MoreRelatedFamily Diversity2452 Words   |  10 PagesDiversity In Families According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by comparable legal relationships-including domestic partnership, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership. Although many people (including social scientists) have understood familial relationships in the terms of blood, many anthropologists have argued that one must understand the notion ofRead MoreFamily Diversity Essay1762 Words   |  8 PagesA report investigating family diversity What is a family? Sociologist Brown defined a family as â€Å"a group of people who are related by kinship ties: relatives of blood, marriage or adoption† (Brown, 1998). But many people might argue this statement is not right anymore as this only defines a traditional family. There are many different types of family which include Nuclear, Cereal Packet, Extended, Single Parent, and Reconstituted. Over the years family life has become more diverse. There is aRead MoreThe Importance Of A Family On Cultural Diversity1515 Words   |  7 Pagesbe a ‘family’ in various cultures. It will focus on three main points stated by Cheal, D (2001). The essay firstly looks at the different forms of family due to cultural diversity. Does it mean biology is important for kinship or can family be extended further than the blood? (Eriksen, 2004). As the nuclear family used to be seen at the ‘traditional family’ the discussion of if this has changed and how this has will be stated. Secon dly the situational diversity and what could cause family form toRead MorePostmodern views on diversity of the family1070 Words   |  5 PagesEvaluate postmodern views on the diversity of family (33marks) The idea of family diversity suggests that there is no dominate type of family, therefore none can be considered as the norm. However there are studies to suggest that in historical periods of Britain like when it was industrializing there is dominating types, in this period it was considered to be the nuclear family. Rapoport and Rapoport agreed that there are five types of diversity in a contemporary family, these are: OrganisationalRead MoreEssay on Diversity in Types of British Families595 Words   |  3 PagesDiversity in Types of British Families Britain has changed in many ways in recent years, not just by advancing in technology but in social ways too. One of these ways is the diversity in types of families. Fifty years ago, in would be extremely unusual to have a divorced family, a un cohabiting couple with children or lone parent families. Nowadays, Britain has the highest divorce rate in Europe and 40 percent of marriages end in divorce. There are a few reasonsRead More contemporary diversity in the structure of the family Essay2652 Words   |  11 Pages Q: Examine the sociological evidence concerning the idea that there is contemporary diversity in the structure of the family. The family is often seen as the corner stone of society. In pre-modern and modern societies alike it has been regarded as the most basic unit of social organisation and one that carries out vital tasks, such as the socialisation of children. Functionalists’ approaches to the family are based on the assumption that society operates on the basis of consensus and thatRead MoreThe Diversity Of The Family Life During The 1950s Era1265 Words   |  6 PagesDiversity in British households has significantly changed over the years. To understand the full extent of the changes in British household diversity, examination of the family life in the 1950s era is essential. Furthermore then to discuss the types of diversity which now exist in families today. Lone-parenting is defined as a mother or father living without a partner who then has responsibility of a dependent child and is one diversity which will be discussed in great depth. Deliberating on theRead MoreAssessing the View that Family Diversity is Leading to a Weakening of Traditional Family Values1666 Words   |  7 PagesAssessing the View that Family Diversity is Leading to a Weakening of Traditional Family Values Given the culturally diverse character of the United Kingdom today, there are considerable variations in family and marriage within the country. The structure of families has altered over time and is still changing today. Changing relationships between spouses in the family, and in particular, the changes in the position of women in the family. The family in the UK today reflectsRead MoreFunctions and Diversity of Family Structure in the UK Essay1276 Words   |  6 PagesFunctions and Diversity of Family Structure There are various debates and views on the term ‘family’ in today’s society. Although we can say that a family consists of a unit of people that are related, either legally through marriage or biologically. In both premodern and modern societies families have been seen as the most basic unit of a social organisation that carries out vital tasks, such as socialising children. Whereas a ‘household’ consists of a groupRead MoreRandom Family Is A Complex Web Of Diversities And Inequalities Essay1770 Words   |  8 PagesBehind every family lies a complex web of diversities and inequalities. In Leblanc’s Random Family the reader is introduced to the true lives of Jessica and Coco. These young women both become teen mothers and are forced to learn how to survive in their poverty stricken neighborhood. They utilize government subsidies but also take advantage of strong and weak ties in order to get what they want and need. Random family is an example of the power of a family as a social institution. The extensions

Monday, December 9, 2019

Management Evaluates the Performance

Question: Discuss about the Management Evaluates the Performance. Answer: Introduction Performance management is a system where the management evaluates the performance of individuals, teams, groups or the entire department by measuring their contributions towards the achievement of organisational goals and objectives. Performance management has been regarded as one of the most useful tools provided to the modern day business world by the concept of human resource management. It allows business organisations to set up organisational goals and objectives, communicate the performance expectations to the employees, review the performances of various components and then take appropriate actions according to the assessment made on the basis of performance shown by them (Acas.org.uk, 2016). The modern day business world is tough and only the fittest can survive in this environment of global competition. In such a scenario, business organisations are largely dependent on their human resources, which can help them in achieving market competencies. Therefore, it is essential that the management is effective enough so that it can maximise the performance of the employees by motivating them by hook or crook. Performance management systems come to the rescue of the companies and provide them with an approach to maximise the performance of the employees by focusing the attention of the whole organisation towards performance management (U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 2016). Allocating Work While designing a performance management system, it is very important that the system is efficient and is accurate in measuring what the management actually wants to measure. Many a times it has been observed that the management ends up designing a dysfunctional performance management system which does more harm to a company that the potential benefits of a carefully and well-designed performance management system. To increase the accuracy and efficiency of a performance management system, it is important that the resources are properly allocated and the work is allocated to the right people and in total accordance with the operational plans. Allocation of work and resources within the organisation, while starting up a performance management system, actually describes the expectations of the company from various individuals, groups or departments. The expectations that a management communicates to its employees forms the basis of the performance that they depict in the future. Therefore, it is very important that the management communicates the right performance expectations by assigning the right roles and duties to the employees. To achieve this, the management should always consult the senior level executives and front line managers. Senior level executives are the people who have charted out the operational plans for the company and they have a better idea of what work has to be done by whom so that the strategical objectives can be fulfilled. Once the management is aware about the role of an individual, a group or a department in the strategy, it should then consult the front line managers as they have a better idea of how they can be motivated to work in the right or the required direction. Consulting the senior level executives and the front line managers would ensure that the right work and the right resources are allocated to the right people in the organisation. The management should also be well prepared to deal with any risks that might be encountered with the allocation of work or resources. To deal with such risks, the management should regularly assess the performances of the employees and should find out areas where the performance is totally lacking. The management should be ready with professional staff or higher level executives who would then intervene to check out the problems in performances and then also try to eliminate them. The management can further set up performance standards according to the industrial average of by calculating average performance metrics from past performance data. The management should ensure that the performance standards that it sets up are realistic and are achievable. If the performance standards are not achievable or are unrealistic, the performance management system might demotivate the employees, who would ultimately lose their morale. Assessing Performance One of the most crucial elements in a performance management system is the assessment of performance. Performance assessment is a process that has to be carried out throughout the year so that accurate and reliable results are obtained. Assessing the performance also becomes important because a number of rewards or incentives are tied up with performance management system which require transparency and non-biasness in the final step of the system i.e. performance appraisal. There are a number of ways in which a company can measure or assess the performance of its employees. Some of the common methods are Balanced Scorecards, Key performance indicators, ratings, forces rankings, forces distribution, etc. but one of the most accurate methods is the 360 degree feedback method (Managementstudyguide.com, 2016). In a 360 degree feedback method, the management obtains performance information of employees from various sources in an organisation. The process is known as 360 feedback method because in this method all the peers, seniors and juniors of an employee are required to submit an anonymous review about the performance of an employee to a senior level manager. The feedback taken from multiple sources ensures that the performance feedbacks are accurate and are not given due to influence of personal relations while the anonymity of the process increases the chances of accurate and reliable feedback. The process is also highly recommended by many senior level managers as it provides a great deal of knowledge about the strengths and weaknesses of the employee whose performance is being measured (Custominsight.com, 2016). Another efficient technique of measuring and evaluating performance of employees is by assigning some important metrics and identifying key performance indicators. Key performance indicators can help the management in measuring performance on the basis of their strategic and organisational goals and make the system of performance management more effective. Providing Feedback The management does not only have to implement a performance management system and measure the performances of each employee. Rather, the management has to assess the performance of the employees and provide a feedback either to a manager or directly to the employees once the managers have been able to compile all the performance data of the employees. Performance feedback is a process where a manager and an employee exchange information about expected performances and exhibited performances (Smallbusiness.chron.com, 2016). One of the best ways to provide a feedback on employee performance has been taken up by Philips India. It has developed a combined system for performance as well as for potential appraisal. The diagram given below shows a matrix that is used by the company in its performance and potential appraisal: The company regularly assesses the performances of its employees and at the end of the year, provides a feedback to the employees by arranging them in the above matrix on the basis of their performance (YourArticleLibrary.com: The Next Generation Library, 2014). Let us now discuss the matrix in detail: Employees who have low potential and are consistently exhibiting low performances are termed as question marks and are prepared for a planned separation. These employees lack the skills and potential and they are not able to perform according to the expected performance standards set up by the company. As a result, the management tries to separate them in a planned way. Employees with low potential and high performance are known as solid citizens. These employees are the ones who do not have the skills or potential to be upgraded to higher jobs but are best at what they do. Thus, the company provides them with some kind of benefits or incentives that helps in keeping the motivated (YourArticleLibrary.com: The Next Generation Library, 2014). Employees with high potential but low performance levels are categorized as problem children. These people have the potential to perform well but due to some reasons, they do not perform as expected. The management tries to consult them and arrange for counselling sessions so that it can try to eliminate any problems that they are facing with their work. Once their problems are dealt with, the organisation again assesses their performance. If the performance continues to be below the average standards, they are shifted to the category of question marks and are considered for planned separation. Employees with high potential and high performance are categorized as stars as they are the ones who contribute the maximum towards the achievement of organisational goals and objectives. These people exhibit high performance and have the potential to handle higher posts in the organisation. The management tries to train and develop its stars so that their skills can be increased and they can be promoted to high level jobs with due course of time (YourArticleLibrary.com: The Next Generation Library, 2014). Using such an effective system, a management can easily link performance and potential of employees to derive better results and provide them a better feedback. The feedback provided in this way is more accurate and linking performance with the potential of employees makes the information more reliable and valid. Managing Follow-UP Following up on the performance levels of employees is one of the most important tasks in a performance management system. The implementation of a performance management system in the organisation increases the focus of the organisation on performances. Following up implies that the management continues to keep a track on the performance of the employees even after they have been provided with a feedback about their performance levels in the past. Following up on the performance of employees ensure that the difference in performances exhibited before and after performance review is carefully noted and is taken up in the next performance review session. Following up on the performance of employees helps a company in correcting them when they are moving in a wrong direction. The management can arrange for counselling sessions or other types of interventions to warn them about their dropping performances and the ultimate consequences while it can reward those employees who exhibit an improvement in their performance levels (Harvard Business Review, 2014). The process of following up is basically carried out more carefully for under performers as they are on the risk of being separated in the near future. Dealing with underperformers is not an easy task and requires a lot of care. First of all, the company should try to converse with the underperformers and talk to them about their low performance levels. If the employees have shown good performance in the past but are not being able to perform due to some issues, these employees are worth saving. The next step to deal with the underperformers is coaching. It helps them in attaining sk ills and competencies that can help them in increasing their performance. If there is no improvement in the performance levels of the employees whatsoever, the last and the final step is to conclude that the individual is not right for the job. These employees should be encouraged to look for new jobs that can suit their skills and competencies. They should be separated from the organisation in a much planned manner so that they do not feel that they were kicked out of the organisation unethically (Harvard Business Review, 2008). Evaluation of Performance Management System Once a management has successfully implemented a performance management system in the organisation, the next step is to evaluate the system implemented so that the organisation can get a better knowledge about the good and the bad of the system and can consequently work to improve it. Some of the key points that must be checked while evaluating a performance management system are discussed below: The management should check for actual improvements in the overall performance exhibited by various departments and employees The management should check whether the performance management system has actually been able to measure what it was intended to measure The management should take feedback from the employees regarding the performance management system The management should check whether the employees were able to fulfil the performance expectations or will it have to revise its performance goals and objectives to make them more realistic and achievable The management should also check whether the shift of the organisation to a performance oriented environment has been accepted by the employees without any resistance. By ensuring some of the above given key points, a management can gain information about what went wrong in its performance management system, allocation of work and resources, setting up of performance expectations and in the implementation phase of the performance management system. The collected information can help the management in making future changes to the performance management system and make it more effective by eliminating the problems. Selection and Training System The selection process of a company defines how it selects and recruits potential applicants for filling up of vacant positions in the organisation while training is defined as a session where the employees learn new skills and gain technical competencies so that they can compete in the market, achieve higher growth in their career path and contribute more towards the success of their organisations (Business Jargons, 2015). ABC Company is one of the best companies in the country that runs retail stores offering groceries, furniture, consumer electronics, etc. The company has over 150 stores in the country and has a workforce of 10,340 employees. The company was found in 1990 and has achieved great success in its lifetime and is now competing multinational retailing brands in the country. The company has a very effective and efficient human resource department which is highly skilled and knows what to do to maximise the output of its human resources. For the selection process i.e. recruitment of new employees, the human resource department uses both external and internal recruitment methods. The department uses internal recruitment methods when there are vacant positions in the organisation while it uses external recruitment methods to recruit freshers into the organisation. The selection process of the company is a tough one where it makes the applicants go through a series of psychological and personal ity tests to find the right fit for the right jobs. Once the company is done with the recruitment process, it provides a brief training to the new employees before they can join their jobs. The training period is meant to provide them a brief view of what their roles and responsibilities would be once they join the company. The employees are provided an increment after every year while they are promoted to higher jobs after every two years. During this period, the company arranges a number of on the job training sessions for them so that they can acquire new skills and competencies. The system of selection has worked very well for the organisation as it has enabled the management to find the best suitable candidates for the vacancies that develop in the organisation. By making them go through various personality and psychological tests, the human resource department is able to intercept the future performance of the candidate in the company. Thus, the management is able to recruit a talented pool of employees whenever there are vacancies. One major area that needs improvement in the selection process of the company is that it only uses internal recruitment process when higher level jobs are vacant. The company should also start using external recruitment sources even for higher level jobs because it has been observed a number of times that people with incomplete knowledge or lesser potential are promoted to higher jobs just because the company would not go for external recruitment. If the company starts external recruitment for all job profiles, the employees wo uld become more competitive and would show higher performance so that they receive the promotions instead of higher posts being offered to external sources. Further, the training programs of the company are also very effective. It uses on the job training programs, such as coaching, mentoring, role-play, in-basket games, etc. to train its employees and to make them acquire new skills. One of the drawbacks of the training system of the company is that it never sends its employees away from their jobs to undergo training sessions. Off the job training sessions have been considered to be equally important as are on the job training session (BusinessDictionary.com, 2016). Off the job training sessions provide more exposure to the employees and help them in gaining knowledge about what new trends are entering the industry that they are working in. Working with different training providers and in different set ups would provide additional benefits to the employees if they are given the opportunity to go for off the job training and development programs. In the past few reviews and feedback sessions, some of the employees have already said that the workforce was more interested in attending off the job training sessions rather than attending on the job training sessions all the time. Therefore, it is quite evident that the company needs to start offering off-the job training programs to its employees, which would be more cost effective and would provide better learning abilities to the employees (Training, 2016). Conclusion Managing the performance of people is an art and should be carefully done. If a management is able to get a performance management system in place and running, it can actually boost up the overall performance of the company but at the same time, a dysfunctional or a carelessly planned performance management system can cause a company more harm than the benefits that an efficient performance management system can have. Therefore, by keeping the performance management systems simple and transparent, business organisations can actually manage the performance of their employees. References Capko, J. (2016). Five Steps to a Performance Evaluation System - Family Practice Management. [online] Aafp.org. Available at: https://www.aafp.org/fpm/2003/0300/p43.html [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. YourArticleLibrary.com: The Next Generation Library. (2014). How to Evaluate Employee Potential? Answered. [online] Available at: https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/employee-management/how-to-evaluate-employee-potential-answered/35505/ [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. Harvard Business Review. (2014). How to Help an Underperformer. [online] Available at: https://hbr.org/2014/06/how-to-help-an-underperformer/ [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. (2016). Overview History. [online] Available at: https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/performance-management/overview-history/ [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. Zvavahera, (2016). An evaluation of the effectiveness of performance management systems on service delivery in the Zimbabwean civil service. 1st ed. [ebook] National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe. Available at: https://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/131746.pdf [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. Hr.utk.edu. (2016). Performance Evaluation | Human Resources. [online] Available at: https://hr.utk.edu/performance-evaluation/ [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. Acas.org.uk. (2016). Performance management | Acas. [online] Available at: https://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=4668 [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. Graduates.teachfirst.org.uk. (n.d.). Selection process | Teach First. [online] Available at: https://graduates.teachfirst.org.uk/application-selection/selection-process [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. Managementstudyguide.com. (2016). Techniques for Assessment of Performance and the Factors Affecting Assessments. [online] Available at: https://www.managementstudyguide.com/performance-assessment-techniques.htm [Accessed 19 Jul. 2016]. Harvard Business Review. (2008). The Three Cs of Dealing with Under Performers. [online] Available at: https://hbr.org/2008/09/underperformers [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. Training, A. (2016). Advantages Of Off-the-job Training | Accounting-Management. [online] Accountlearning.blogspot.com. Available at: https://accountlearning.blogspot.com/2013/03/advantages-of-off-job-training.html [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. Custominsight.com. (2016). What is 360 Degree Feedback ?. [online] Available at: https://www.custominsight.com/360-degree-feedback/what-is-360-degree-feedback.asp [Accessed 19 Jul. 2016]. Custominsight.com. (2016). What is 360 Degree Feedback ?. [online] Available at: https://www.custominsight.com/360-degree-feedback/what-is-360-degree-feedback.asp [Accessed 19 Jul. 2016]. BusinessDictionary.com. (2016). What is on the job training (OJT)? definition and meaning. [online] Available at: https://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/on-the-job-training-OJT.html [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016]. Smallbusiness.chron.com. (2016). What Is Performance Feedback?. [online] Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/performance-feedback-1882.html [Accessed 19 Jul. 2016]. Business Jargons. (2015). What is Training Process? definition and meaning - Business Jargons. [online] Available at: https://businessjargons.com/training-process.html [Accessed 20 Jul. 2016].

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Story of None free essay sample

During the early days of the Clinton presidency, after years of war on antipoverty programs, struggling single mothers were all too common. Somehow, some found ways to provide for the children they loved and were willing to give the world for. Mama was one of those women. When I was younger, there were times we had no electricity, times when we had to accept food from strangers, times when all we had was each other. Somehow, Mama made it all work. She was willing to sacrifice anything for my brother and me. She was willing to sacrifice the world. In the end, all she had to sacrifice was her health. It happened when Mama switched jobs. She lost her health care, and COBRA was too expensive. In order for her to pay the heat and electricity bills and put food on the table, Mama suffered from undiagnosed, severe rheumatoid arthritis for six months. We will write a custom essay sample on The Story of None or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I was eight when she lost the ability to tie her shoes, put on her seat belt, or even turn on the ignition of her car. She depended on me, a child in all senses of the word, to do these things for her. I won’t lie. I was selfish and resentful toward my mother, the â€Å"evil witch† who disrupted my playtime because she needed my help. I was only eight, only a child. But when I remember the temper tantrums I threw when she made me carry the laundry basket, or when she wouldn’t give me an allowance, I feel a knot of guilt well up in my chest. Even now, all these years later, long after Mama has forgotten what a terrible, bratty child I was, my face still burns with shame. Today, life is better. Life is easier. Mama can (usually) afford to see doctors and pay for her medication. She still has bad days. Sometimes, she has to grasp a wall as she walks, hunched over. Sometimes, she bites her lip in pain. Rarely does she  ­complain. Mama’s trials have, ironically, provided me with my most valuable vantage point. I’m able to look at the world through eyes that don’t perceive everything as black or white. I know that being poor is not a mark of unworthiness. I know that everyone, regardless of income, deserves everyday necessities like health care. People ask me why I want to enter politics. That’s when I point out that my story isn’t as unique as many people want to believe. Every day, there are parents who worry about affording groceries and others who can’t pay medical bills because it’s winter and heating is more important. When parents cannot pay for the cost of living, their children suffer too. My story is the story of millions. I want to make it the story of none.